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An ecologically based system for sustainable agroforestry in sub-tropical and tropical forests
SUN Yuan 1,CAO Fuliang 1 *,WELHAM Clive 2,PELZ R.Dieter 3,WEI Xiaohua 4,CHEN Lei 5,YANG Qing 6
1.Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University
2.Department of Forest Resources Management, Faculty of Forestry, University of British Columbia
3.Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, University of Freiburg
4.Earth and Environmental Science, University of British Columbia
5.Forestry College, Nanjing Forestry University
6.College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University
*Correspondence author
#Submitted by
Subject: Silviculture
Funding: the specialized research fund for doctoral programs in China (No.20133204130001), the general financial grant from the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No.2016M601822)
Opened online:12 April 2017
Accepted by: Forests, 2017, 8(4): 102-120.
Citation: SUN Yuan,CAO Fuliang,WELHAM Clive.An ecologically based system for sustainable agroforestry in sub-tropical and tropical forests[J]. Forests, 2017, 8(4): 102-120.
Forests in tropical and sub-tropical countries face severe pressures due to a combination of poverty and environment degradation. To be effective, measures to protect these forests must therefore consider both economic and ecological dimensions synergistically. The purpose of this paper was to synthesize our long-term work (1994-2015) on a Ginkgo agroforestry system and demonstrate its potential for achieving both goals, and discuss its wider application in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The performance of various ecological, economic, and social indicators was compared among five Ginkgo agroforestry systems. Two integrated indicators, Harmony Degree (HD) and Development Degree (DD), were also used to show the integrated performance of these indicators. Ginkgo-Wheat-Peanut (G+W+P) and Ginkgo-Rapeseed-Peanut (G+R+P) are the best systems when compared to pure and mixed Ginkgo plantations, or pure agricultural crops. Results demonstrate that it is possible to achieve both economic development and environmental protection through implementation of sustainable agroforestry systems in sub-tropical regions.
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba; indicators; forest products; Harmony Degree; Development Degree

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