Development of a strontium-containing hydroxyapatite bone cement
A new route was developed to synthesis a new type of strontium-containing hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAP) bone cement with precursors of tetracalcium phosphate (TTCP), strontium hydrogen phosphate (DSPA), dicalcium phosphate (DCPA), phosphate acid and water. The processing parameters and fundamental properties including pH value, setting time, compressive strength of final hardened bodyand the cytotoxicityfor serial extracts of each cements were investigated. The result shows that the final product of the cement after setting for 24 h is nonstoichiometic Sr-containing hydroxyapatite (Ca10mxSrxm(HPO4) y(PO4)6y(OH)22m2m, 0oxo1, nSr-HAP) and no other harmful impurities were detected. The pH value of Sr-containing cement pastes approaches to 7.0-7.6 when theyare mixed with a ratio of 1:1 of powder to liquid (P/L) in weight. The setting time of the cement pastes is 4-11 min for the initial one and 10-17 min for the final one when the concentration of diluted phosphate is in a range of 0.5-1.0mol/l. The compressive strengths of the hardened cements with different molar ratios of Sr/(Sr+Ca) after subjected an immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) increase uniformly from 1 day to 5 days, where they get maximum values, respectively, but then decrease till to 2 weeks. Especiallyfor the CPC-1, with a Sr/(Sr+Ca) molar ratios of 5% in cement powder composition, the largest compressive strength gained at 5 days is 66.57MPa and the lowest one gained at 2 weeks is 44.75 MPa, which matches the value of human bones and can be expected to use in clinic application in repairing the nonloading sites on account of the positive result of cytotoxicity test of the extracts of Sr-containing calcium phosphate cement (Sr-CPC).