Adaptive discriminant learning for face recognition
Pattern Recognition，2013，46（9）：2497-2509 | 2013年09月01日 | doi.org/10.1016/j.patcog.2013.01.037
Face recognition from Single Sample per Person (SSPP) is extremely challenging because only one sample is available for each person. While many discriminant analysis methods, such as Fisherfaces and its numerous variants, have achieved great success in face recognition, these methods cannot work in this scenario, because more than one sample per person are needed to calculate the within-class scatter matrix. To address this problem, we propose Adaptive Discriminant Analysis (ADA) in which the within-class scatter matrix of each enrolled subject is inferred using his/her single sample, by leveraging a generic set with multiple samples per person. Our method is motivated from the assumption that subjects who look alike to each other generally share similar within-class variations. In ADA, a limited number of neighbors for each single sample are first determined from the generic set by using kNN regression or Lasso regression. Then, the within-class scatter matrix of this single sample is inferred as the weighted average of the within-class scatter matrices of these neighbors based on the arithmetic mean or Riemannian mean. Finally, the optimal ADA projection directions can be computed analytically by using the inferred within-class scatter matrices and the actual between-class scatter matrix. The proposed method is evaluated on three databases including FERET database, FRGC database and a large real-world passport-like face database. The extensive results demonstrate the effectiveness of our ADA when compared with the existing solutions to the SSPP problem.