Frontiers of Information Technology & Electronic Engineering, 2016, 17(3):265-280.，-0001，（）：
In wideband multi-pair two-way relay networks, the performance of beamforming at a relay station (RS) is intimately related to the accuracy of the channel state information (CSI) available. The accuracy of CSI is determined by Doppler spread, delay between beamforming and channel estimation, and density of pilot symbols, including transmit power of pilot symbols. The coefficient of the Gaussian-Markov CSI error model is modeled as a function of CSI delay, Doppler spread, and signal-to-noise ratio, and can be estimated in real time. In accordance with the real-time estimated coefficients of the error model, an adaptive robust maximum signal-to-interferenceand-noise ratio (Max-SINR) plus maximum signal-to-leakage-and-noise ratio (Max-SLNR) beamformer at an RS is proposed to track the variation of the CSI error. From simulation results and analysis, it is shown that: compared to existing non-adaptive beamformers, the proposed adaptive beamformer is more robust and performs much better in the sense of bit error rate (BER); with increase in the density of transmit pilot symbols, its BER and sum-rate performances tend to those of the beamformer of Max-SINR plus Max-SLNR with ideal CSI.