Food and Bioprocess Technology，-0001，（）：
The effects of vacuum impregnation (VI) with 2% calcium lactate treatment on the VI properties (obtained from hydrodynamic mechanism and deformation–relaxation phenomena models), firmness, and pectin of Kyoho grapes were investigated. Fruit pectin was analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). VI was applied for 10–35 min at 25–45 °C and 5 kPa. The maximum values of effective porosity, εe (0.606%), and volume fraction, X (0.588%), occurred at 35 °C when the VI time was 15 min. No change was observed in the volumetric deformation (γ ≈ 0) of the grapes after the impregnation. The firmness significantly increased at 35 °C VI (from 12.93 to 14.47 N). According to the AFM results, calcium mainly inhibited the degradation of chelate-soluble pectin and sodium carbonate-soluble pectin short branches during the VI. Under the studied conditions, the validity of VI to incorporate calcium into fruit to improve the quality of grapes was verified, and a final corresponding product was obtained by VI.