Lung cancer cell identification based on artificial neural network ensembles
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine 24 (2002) 25-36，-0001，（）：
An artificial neural network ensemble is a learning paradigm where several artificial neural networks are jointly used to solve a problem. In this paper, an automatic pathological diagnosis procedure named Neural Ensemble-based Detection (NED) is proposed, which utilizes an artificial neural network ensemble to identify lung cancer cells in the images of the specimens of needle biopsies obtained from the bodies of the subj ects to be diagnosed. The ensemble is built on a two-level ensemble architecture. The first-level ensemble is used to judge whether a cell is normal with high confidence where each individual network has only two outputs respectively normal cell or cancer cell. The predictions of those individual networks are combined by a novel method presented in this paper, i.e.f. 1l voting which judges a cell to be normal only when all the individual networks judge it is normal. The second-level ensemble is used to deal with the cells that are judged as cancer cells by the first-level ensemble, where each individual network has five outputs respectively adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell respectily adenocarcinaoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and normal, among which the former four are different types of lung cancer cells. The predictions of those individual networks are combined by a prevailing method, i.e.plurality voting. Through adopting those techniques, NED achieves not only a high rate of overall identification, but also a low rate of false negative identification, i.e. a low rate of judging cancer cells to be normal ones, which is important in saving lives due to reducing missing diagnoses of cancer patients.
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