雷啸霖
从事凝聚物质的电子输运和超导电性研究
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 姓名：雷啸霖
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学术头衔：
博士生导师， 中国科学院院士
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学科领域：
凝聚态物理学
 研究兴趣：从事凝聚物质的电子输运和超导电性研究
雷啸霖。中国科学院院士，物理学家。1938年出生，1963年北京大学毕业，现任上海交通大学教授。长期从事凝聚物质的电子输运和超导电性研究。20世纪六十年代初与吴杭生院士一道提出超导膜的尺寸非局域效应，发现了薄膜临界磁场随膜厚度变化的d3/2次方规律。八十年代中期与美国丁秦生教授合作创立半导体输运的平衡方程理论。九十年代初发展了超晶格微带输运模型，建立了在电场和磁场中任意能谱材料的热电子输运方程。九十年代末提出了研究强太赫兹电磁波作用下半导体输运和光学性质的一个系统方法。最近致力于研究二维电子系统中电磁辐照引起的磁阻振荡。
发表学术论文230篇，出版专著《Physics of Hot Electron Transport in Semiconductors》、《半导体输运的平衡方程方法》。1988年被授予国家突出贡献的中青年科技专家称号，1996年获得全国总工会颁发的“五一”劳动奖章。研究成果获得1989年中国科学院自然科学奖二等奖，1994年中国科学院自然科学奖一等奖，和1995年国家自然科学奖二等奖。

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雷啸霖， X. L. Lei
JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 1998, 84 (3): 1396～1404 ，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
We investigate the effect of a uniform intense terahertz radiation on hotelectron transport in semiconductors driven by a dc or slowly varying electric field of arbitrary strength. Using a vector potential for the highfrequency field and a scalar potential for the dc or slowly varying field, we are able to separate the centerofmass motion from relative motion of electrons and to distinguish the slowly varying part from the rapidly oscillating part of the centerofmass velocity. Considering the fact that relevant transport quantities are measured over a time interval much longer than the period of the terahertz radiation field, we obtain a set of momentum and energy balance equations, without invoking a perturbational treatment of the electronphoton interaction. These equations, which include all the multiphoton processes, are applied to the examination of hotcarrier transport in a GaAsbased quantum well subjected to a weak or a strong dc bias and irradiated by a terahertz radiation of various frequency and strength in both the parallel and vertical configurations. Up to as many as unu 550 absorption and emission multiphoton channels are included in the numerical calculation. The present approach turns out to be a very convenient and efficient tool to study the effect of an intense highfrequency radiation on dc or slowly varying carrier transport in semiconductors. Its applicable frequency range and its connection with previously developed balanceequation treatment are discussed.

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【期刊论文】Hotelectron energyloss rate in polar semiconductors in a twotemperature model
雷啸霖， X.L. Lei， M.W. Wu
PHYSICAI REVIEW B, 1993, 47 (20): 13338～13345，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
The rate of hotelectron energy loss to the lattice in polar semiconductors is studied within a twotemperature model. We call attention to the role of the internal thermalization of the LOphonon system in implementing this model and in establishing the concept of electron energy loss to phonons. With the help of the Feynman diagrammatic technique for the Keldysh closedtimepath Green's function, we have derived a formula for the electronenergyloss rate, taking account of contributions from all orders of the electronphonon interaction and including the hotphonon effect. This formula, which carries the internal thermalization time of the LOphonon system and the relaxation time of the whole lattice as parameters, reduces exactly to the conventional Kogan formula in the limit of weak electronphonon coupling. In the zerohotphononeffect Iimit (if it is allowed) this formula is shown to be equivalent to that given by Dharmawardana [Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 197(1991)]. Comparison beween our formula and that of Das Sarma and Korenman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2916(1991)] is also given. An interesting prediction of the present formula is the lowtemperature enhancement of the electronenergyloss rate over the conventional Kogan result. A numerical calculation for a twodimensional GaAs system shows agreement between this theory and the experimental trend.

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【期刊论文】Theory of Negative Differential Conductivity in a Superlattice Miniband
雷啸霖， X.L Lei， N.J.N.M. Horing， H.L. Cui
PHYSICAI REVIEW LETTERS, 1971, 66 (25): 3277～3280，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
Bloch electron conductivity perpendicular to the layers of a superlattice (period d) is evaluated using an extension of the balanceequation qpproach [X.L. Lei and C.S. Ting. Phys. Rev. B 32, 1112(1985)] to narrowband transport. The perpendicular park drift velocity Tp and The critical field Ec, at which the drift velocity peaks, are analyzed as functions of miniband width. Our theoretical predication that Ecd increases with decreasing miniband width agrees well with the data of Sibille et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 52(1990)], even for the samples of narrowest miniband width in their expriment.

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雷啸霖， X.L. Lei*， D.Y. Xing， * M. Liu， * C.S. Ting， Joseph L. Birman
PHYSICAI REVIEW B, 1987, 36 (17): 9134～9141，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
The balanceequation approach for hotelectron transport previously developed is extended to systems com posed of two groups of carriers, each of different effective mass. This is the simplest model for a real band structure of a multivalley semiconductor. The separation of the centerofmass (c.m.) motion from the relative motion of the electrons is incomplete due to the possibility of exchange of particle number between the two systems and thus is taken into account in the Liouville equation for the density matrix. General expressions for the rates of change of the c.m. momenta, electron system energies, and partcle numbers are obtained. These equations in their classical forms are used for a model calculation for the highfield steadystate transport in GaAs and the calculated results show reasonably good agreement with experiments.

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【期刊论文】Nonlinear balance equations for hotelectron transport with finite phononrelaxation time
雷啸霖， X.L. Lei*， N.J.M. Horing
PHYSICAI REVIEW B, 1987, 35 (12): 6281～6294，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
The balanceequation approach developed by Lei and Ting for steadystate hotelectron transport is extended here to include nonequilibrium phonon occupation under the assumption that the effect of phononphonon interaction can be represented by an effective phonon relaxation time Tp, which may be mode dependent. Both single heterojunctions and multiplayer quantumwell superlattices, as well as threedimensional (3D) bulk systems, are discussed. A 3D phonon model and a quasi2D phonon model are employed in describing the various interaction electronphonon systems. The expressions for the frictional forces and energy transfer rates obtained in steady state are structurally similar to those without hotphonon effects and the balance equations with finite phonon relaxation can be solved with the same computational effort as in the case of Tp=0. We have examined hot phonon effects on the energytransfer rate, the electron temperature, and the linear and nonlinear mobilities. It is given lattice temperature. However, It significantly increases the velocities. For an ntype GaAs heterosystem the normalized electronenergyloss rate at Tp=3.5ps is seen to be a factor of 510 smaller than that at Tp=0. The functional dependence of the energyloss rate on carrier temperature shows considerable difference form the prediction of a carrier temperaturetype theory, and is in reasonably good agreement with experiments.

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【期刊论文】Hotelectron transport in GaAsAlGaAs heterojunctions
雷啸霖， X.L.Lei， * J.Q.Zhang， * Joseph L. Birman， C.S Ting
PHYSICAI REVIEW B, 1986, 33 (6): 4382～4385，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
Hotelectron transport in a GaAsAlGaAs heterojunchon is studied by the use of a nonBoltzmann balaceequation approach recently developed. The occupation of the lowest and next lowes subbands and coulomb interactions between inrasubband and intersubband elelctrons are taken into account. We include the scattering by remote charge impurities, acoustic phonos (via deformation potential and piezoeletric coupling), and polar opteical phonons in the force and energy balance equations to give the carrier mobility as a function of dirft velocity and/or eletric field. Theoretical results are in reasonably good agreement with experiments.

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雷啸霖， X.L. Lei， Joseph L. Birman， C.S. Ting
，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
A nonBoltzmznn theory of steadystate transport for twodimensional systems in a strong electric field is developed, which includes a forceand an energy balance equation. The electron termperature, impurity, and phononlimited mobilities are determined solely from these balance equations. The theory is applied to the calculation of ohmic and nonlinear transport in GaAsGaAlAs heterojunctions at low temperatures. Temperaturedependent ohmic mobilities are calculated and compared with experiments. Nonlinear effects in electronic transport at low temperatures are discussed and some numerical results are presented. We also compare the present balance equations with those in the carrier temperature mode).

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雷啸霖， X.L. Lei， C.S. Ting
PHYSICAI REVIEW B, 1985, 32 (2): 1112～1132，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
A Green's function approach to nonlinear electronic transport in a static electric field is developed microscopically for the system composed of interacting electrons with impurities and phonons. The essemtoal idea is to separate the centerofmass motion of electrons. An electron temperature is introduced as a measurement of the internal energy of the relative electrons electrons and phonons in the initial state, we obtain the density matrix for the electronlattice sysytem to the first order of mass of interaction but nuder arbitrarily strong electric field. The frictional force experienced by the center of mass of the Green'sfunction technique, and the forceand energybalance equations for steady state are obtained. These equations are qpplied to the calculations of the ratio of electron temperature to the lattice temperature and the electron redsistivity as functions of drift velocity imputity, acousticphonon, and optcalphonon scatterings. The dynamic nature of Coulomb screening by charge carriers is studied numerically. One of the interesting predictions is the possible cooling of electtons at low temperatures in samples with low impurity comcentration.

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【期刊论文】Theory of nonlinear electron transport for solids in a strong electric field
雷啸霖， X.L. Lei， C.S. Ting
PHYSICAI REVIEW B, 1984, 30 (8): 4809～4812，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
The nonlinear transport for interacting electrons with phonons and impurities is studied in the presence of a strong electric field E. By separating the centerofmass motion from the relative motion of electrons we are able to obtain forceand energybalance equations in steady states, form which the electron temperature and current density can be determined selfconsistently as a function of E.

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雷啸霖， X.L. Lei， S.Y. Liu
，0001，（）：
1年11月30日
Microwaveradiation induced giant magnetoresistance oscillations recently discovered in highmobility twodimensional electron systems are analyzed theoretically. Multiphotonassisted impurity scatterings are shown to be the primary origin of the oscillation. Based on a theory which considers the interaction of electrons with electromagnetic fields and the effect of the cyclotron resonance in Faraday geometry, we are able not only to reproduce the correct period, phase, and the negative resistivity of the main oscillation, but also to predict the secondary peaks and additional maxima and minima observed in the experiments. These peakvalley structures are identified to relate, respectively, to single, double, and triplephoton processes.

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