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2020年10月19日

【期刊论文】ADAMTS1 and MMP1 proteolytically engage EGF-like ligands in an osteolytic signaling cascade for bone metastasis

Genes & Dev.,2009,23():1882-1894

2009年07月16日

摘要

Bone metastasis is mediated by complex interactions between tumor cells and resident stromal cells in the bone microenvironment. The functions of metalloproteinases in organ-specific metastasis remain poorly defined despite their well-appreciated role in matrix degradation and tumor invasion. Here, we show a mechanism whereby two distinct metalloproteinases, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS1) and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1), orchestrate a paracrine signaling cascade to modulate the bone microenvironment in favor of osteoclastogenesis and bone metastasis. Proteolytic release of membrane-bound epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like growth factors, including Amphiregulin (AREG), heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), and transforming growth factor α (TGFα) from tumor cells suppress the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteoblasts and subsequently potentiate osteoclast differentiation. EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitors block osteolytic bone metastasis by targeting EGFR signaling in bone stromal cells. Furthermore, elevated MMP1 and ADAMTS1 expression is associated with increased risk of bone metastasis in breast cancer patients. This study established MMP1 and ADAMTS1 in tumor cells, as well as EGFR signaling in osteoblasts, as promising therapeutic targets for inhibiting bone metastasis of breast cancer.

EGFR bone metastasis breast cancer metalloprotease osteoclastogenesis

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2020年10月16日

【期刊论文】AKT-mediated stabilization of histone methyltransferase WHSC1 promotes prostate cancer metastasis

J Clin Invest,2017,127(4):1284–1302

2017年03月20日

摘要

Loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway are hallmarks of prostate cancer (PCa). However, these alterations alone are insufficient for cells to acquire metastatic traits. Here, we have shown that the histone dimethyl transferase WHSC1 critically drives indolent PTEN-null tumors to become metastatic PCa. In a PTEN-null murine PCa model, WHSC1 overexpression in prostate epithelium cooperated with Pten deletion to produce a metastasis-prone tumor. Conversely, genetic ablation of Whsc1 prevented tumor progression in PTEN-null mice. Molecular characterization revealed that increased AKT activity due to PTEN loss directly phosphorylates WHSC1 at S172, preventing WHSC1 degradation by CRL4Cdt2 E3 ligase. Increased WHSC1 expression transcriptionally upregulates expression of RICTOR, a pivotal component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), to further enhance AKT activity. Therefore, the AKT/WHSC1/mTORC2 signaling cascade represents a vicious feedback loop that elicits unrestrained AKT signaling. Furthermore, we determined that WHSC1 positively regulates Rac1 transcription to increase tumor cell motility. The biological importance of a WHSC1-mediated signaling cascade is substantiated by patient sample analysis in which WHSC1 signaling is tightly correlated with disease progression and recurrence. Taken together, our findings highlight a pivotal link between an epigenetic regulator, WHSC1, and key intracellular signaling molecules, AKT, RICTOR, and Rac1, to drive PCa metastasis.

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2020年10月19日

【期刊论文】The Multifaceted Role of MTDH/AEG-1 in Cancer Progression

Clin Cancer Res,2009,15(18):5615–20

2009年09月01日

摘要

Cancer is the result of the progressive acquisition of multiple malignant traits through the accumulation of genetic or epigenetic alterations. Recent studies have established a functional role of MTDH (Metadherin)/AEG-1 (Astrocyte Elevated Gene 1) in several crucial aspects of tumor progression, including transformation, evasion of apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, and chemoresistance. Overexpression of MTDH/AEG-1 is frequently observed in melanoma, glioma, neuroblastoma, and carcinomas of breast, prostate, liver, and esophagus and is correlated with poor clinical outcomes. MTDH/AEG-1 functions as a downstream mediator of the transforming activity of oncogenic Ha-Ras and c-Myc. Furthermore, MTDH/AEG-1 overexpression activates the PI3K/Akt, nuclear factor κB (NFκB), and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways to stimulate proliferation, invasion, cell survival, and chemoresistance. The lung-homing domain of MTDH/AEG-1 also mediates the adhesion of tumor cells to the vasculature of distant organs and promotes metastasis. These findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of MTDH/AEG-1 may simultaneously suppress tumor growth, block metastasis, and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutic treatments.

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2020年10月16日

【期刊论文】Differential effects on lung and bone metastasis of breast cancer by Wnt signalling inhibitor DKK1

Nature Cell Biology ,2017,19():1274–1285

2017年09月11日

摘要

Metastatic cancer is a systemic disease, and metastasis determinants might elicit completely different effects in various target organs. Here we show that tumour-secreted DKK1 is a serological marker of breast cancer metastasis organotropism and inhibits lung metastasis. DKK1 suppresses PTGS2-induced macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in lung metastases by antagonizing cancer cell non-canonical WNT/PCP–RAC1–JNK signalling. In the lungs, DKK1 also inhibits WNT/Ca2+–CaMKII–NF-κB signalling and suppresses LTBP1-mediated TGF-β secretion of cancer cells. In contrast, DKK1 promotes breast-to-bone metastasis by regulating canonical WNT signalling of osteoblasts. Importantly, targeting canonical WNT may not be beneficial to treatment of metastatic cancer, while combinatory therapy against JNK and TGF-β signalling effectively prevents metastasis to both the lungs and bone. Thus, DKK1 represents a class of Janus-faced molecules with dichotomous roles in organotropic metastasis, and our data provide a rationale for new anti-metastasis approaches.

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2020年10月16日

【期刊论文】Bcl-3 regulates TGFβ signaling by stabilizing Smad3 during breast cancer pulmonary metastasis

Cell Death & Disease volume,2016,7():e2508

2016年12月01日

摘要

Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling in breast cancer is selectively associated with pulmonary metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that Bcl-3, a member of the IκB family, serves as a critical regulator in TGFβ signaling to modulate breast cancer pulmonary metastasis. Bcl-3 expression was significantly associated with metastasis-free survival in breast cancer patients. Bcl-3 deletion inhibited the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells in vitro, as well as breast cancer lung metastasis in vivo. Bcl-3 was required for the expression of downstream TGFβ signaling genes that are involved in breast cancer lung metastasis. Bcl-3 knockdown enhanced the degradation of Smad3 but not Smad2 following TGFβ treatment. Bcl-3 could bind to Smad3 and prevent the ubiquitination and degradation of Smad3 protein. These results indicate that Bcl-3 serves as a promising target to prevent breast tumor lung metastasis.

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