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【期刊论文】Revisiting Online Quantum State Learning

AAAI-20 Technical Tracks 4 ，2020，34（4）：

2020年04月03日

In this paper, we study the online quantum state learning problem which is recently proposed by Aaronson et al. (2018). In this problem, the learning algorithm sequentially predicts quantum states based on observed measurements and losses and the goal is to minimize the regret. In the previous work, the existing algorithms may output mixed quantum states. However, in many scenarios, the prediction of a pure quantum state is required. In this paper, we first propose a Follow-the-Perturbed-Leader (FTPL) algorithm that can guarantee to predict pure quantum states. Theoretical analysis shows that our algorithm can achieve an O(√T) expected regret under some reasonable settings. In the case that the pure state prediction is not mandatory, we propose another deterministic learning algorithm which is simpler and more efficient. The algorithm is based on the online gradient descent (OGD) method and can also achieve an O(√T) regret bound. The main technical contribution of this result is an algorithm of projecting an arbitrary Hermitian matrix onto the set of density matrices with respect to the Frobenius norm. We think this subroutine is of independent interest and can be widely used in many other problems in the quantum computing area. In addition to the theoretical analysis, we evaluate the algorithms with a series of simulation experiments. The experimental results show that our FTPL method and OGD method outperform the existing RFTL approach proposed by Aaronson et al. (2018) in almost all settings. In the implementation of the RFTL approach, we give a closed-form solution to the algorithm. This provides an efficient, accurate, and completely executable solution to the RFTL method.

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【期刊论文】On the Degree of Boolean Functions as Polynomials over Zm

arXiv，2020，（）：

2020年05月01日

Polynomial representations of Boolean functions over various rings such as Z and Zm have been studied since Minsky and Papert (1969). From then on, they have been employed in a large variety of fields including communication complexity, circuit complexity, learning theory, coding theory and so on. For any integer m≥2, each Boolean function has a unique multilinear polynomial representation over ring Zm. The degree of such polynomial is called modulo-m degree, denoted as degm(⋅). In this paper, we investigate the lower bound of modulo-m degree of Boolean functions. When m=pk (k≥1) for some prime p, we give a tight lower bound that degm(f)≥k(p−1) for any non-degenerated function f:{0,1}n→{0,1}, provided that n is sufficient large. When m contains two different prime factors p and q, we give a nearly optimal lower bound for any symmetric function f:{0,1}n→{0,1} that degm(f)≥n2+1p−1+1q−1.

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【期刊论文】Revisiting Online Quantum State Learning

arXiv，2019，（）：

2019年07月11日

The classical cake cutting problem studies how to find fair allocations of a heterogeneous and divisible resource among multiple agents. Two of the most commonly studied fairness concepts in cake cutting are proportionality and envy-freeness. It is well known that a proportional allocation among n agents can be found efficiently via simple protocols [16]. For envy-freeness, in a recent breakthrough, Aziz and Mackenzie [5] proposed a discrete and bounded envy-free protocol for any number of players. However, the protocol suffers from high multiple-exponential query complexity and it remains open to find simpler and more efficient envy-free protocols. In this paper we consider a variation of the cake cutting problem by assuming an underlying graph over the agents whose edges describe their acquaintance relationships, and agents evaluate their shares relatively to those of their neighbors. An allocation is called locally proportional if each agent thinks she receives at least the average value over her neighbors. Local proportionality generalizes proportionality and is in an interesting middle ground between proportionality and envy-freeness: its existence is guaranteed by that of an envy-free allocation, but no simple protocol is known to produce such a locally proportional allocation for general graphs. Previous works showed locally proportional protocols for special classes of graphs, and it is listed in both [1] and [8] as an open question to design simple locally proportional protocols for more general classes of graphs. In this paper we completely resolved this open question by presenting a discrete and bounded locally proportional protocol for any given graphs. Our protocol has a query complexity of only single exponential, which is significantly smaller than the six towers of n query complexity of the envy-free protocol given in [5].

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【期刊论文】Structured Decomposition for Reversible Boolean Functions

IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems，2019，39（10）：2410 - 242

2019年07月16日

Reversible Boolean function (RBF) is a one-to-one function which maps n-bit input to n-bit output. Reversible logic synthesis has been widely studied due to its connection with low-energy computation as well as quantum computation. In this paper, we give a structured decomposition for even RBFs. Specifically, for n ≥ 6, any even n-bit RBF can be decomposed to 7 blocks of (n-1)-bit RBF, where 7 is a constant independent of n and the positions of these blocks have a large degree of freedom. Moreover, if the (n-1)-bit RBFs are required to be even as well, we show for n ≥ 10, even n-bit RBF can be decomposed to 10 even (n - 1)-bit RBFs. In short, our decomposition has block depth 7 and even block depth 10. Our result improves Selinger's work in block depth model, by reducing the constant from 9 to 7 and from 13 to 10, when the blocks are limited to be even. We emphasize that our setting is a bit different from Selinger's work. In Selinger's constructive proof, each block is placed in one of two specific positions and thus the decomposition has an alternating structure. We relax this restriction and allow each block to act on arbitrary (n - 1) bits. This relaxation keeps the block structure and provides more candidates when choosing the positions of blocks.

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【期刊论文】Local Equivalence of Multipartite Entanglement

IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications，2020，38（3）： 568 - 574

2020年01月23日

Let R be an invariant polynomial ring of a reductive group acting on a vector space, and let d be the minimum integer such that R is generated by those polynomials in R of degree no more than d. To upper bound such d is a long standing open problem since the very initial study of the invariant theory in the 19th century. Motivated by its significant role in characterizing multipartite entanglement, we study the invariant polynomial rings of local unitary groups - the direct product of unitary groups acting on the tensor product of Hilbert spaces, and local general linear groups - the direct product of general linear groups acting on the tensor product of Hilbert spaces. For these two group actions, we prove explicit upper bounds on the degrees needed to generate the corresponding invariant polynomial rings. On the other hand, systematic methods are provided to construct all homogeneous polynomials that are invariant under these two groups for any fixed degree. Thus, our results can be regarded as a complete characterization of the invariant polynomial rings. As an interesting application, we show that multipartite entanglement is additive in the sense that two multipartite states are local unitary equivalent if and only if r-copies of them are local unitary equivalent for some r.

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